ECTS and the European Higher Education Area (Bologna Process)
ECTS is the credit system for higher education used in the European Higher Education Area, involving all countries engaged in the Bologna Process. ECTS is one of the cornerstones of the Bologna process. Most Bologna countries have adopted ECTS by law for their higher education systems.
Among other objectives, the Bologna Process aims at the establishment of a system of credits as a proper means of promoting the most widespread student mobility. ECTS contributes to several other Bologna objectives:
ECTS credits are a key element of the Bologna Framework for Qualifications, compatible with the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF). According to the Bologna Qualifications Framework, the first and second cycles have their own credit ranges. Consequently, ECTS credits are used in formulating national qualifications frameworks for higher education, which may contain more detailed national credit arrangements.
ECTS helps institutions to implement the objective of quality assurance. In some countries ECTS is a requirement for accreditation of higher education programmes or qualifications.
ECTS is also increasingly used by institutions in other continents and thus plays a role in the growing global dimension of the Bologna Process.
ECTS User's Guide
ECTS grading table
Conservatorio di Musica Arrigo Boito curve ECTS 2014-16